Study on wholesale mobile connectivity, trends and issues for emerging mobile technologies and deployments

Document number: BoR (23) 41

Document date: 13-04-2023

Date of registration: 14-04-2023

Document type:
Author: WIK-Consult

Mobile communications is currently in a state of transition, as 4G networks are upgraded to 5G and physical SIM cards are replaced with eSIM. Further technological and service developments will follow with the deployment of 5G Standalone networks which support quality-assured services.
This study examines technical developments in mobile connectivity, implications for the value chain and the possible roles that could be played by various stakeholders including mobile network operators, mobile virtual network operators (MVNOs), equipment manufacturers (OEMs), operating system (OS) providers and “verticals” i.e. industrial users of mobile connectivity. It looks at the consequences for sustainable competition and consumer welfare, and discusses the possible roles that NRAs could play in supporting competition, innovation and digital inclusion in the context of these technological developments in mobile communications.